जागतिक मधमाशी दिन: शेतीसाठी कीटकनाशकांचा वापर, प्रदूषण, वातावरण बदल, विविध रोग यामुळे मधमाश्यांचा अधिवास आणि विकास धोक्यात आला आहे.
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मधमाशी म्हटली की थोडी भिती मनात असतेच. मात्र लहानपणी खोकला आल्यावर आईने प्रेमाने चाटवलेल्या मधाची आठवण येते. फुलांभोवती रुंजी घालून हळूच त्यावर विसावणाऱ्या मधमाशीचे छायाचित्रही तेवढेच लोभस आणि छायाचित्रकरांसाठी आकर्षण असते, तर निसर्गप्रेमींसाठी ती पर्यावरणाचा एक महत्वाचा घटक आहे. अशा मधमाशीचा दिवस आज साजरा होतोय.

मधमाशी आकाराने लहान असली तरी पर्यावरण संतुलन, जनुकीय विविधता आणि विशेषत: खाद्यान्न उत्पादन-पोषणात तिची महत्वाची भूमिका लक्षात घेऊन संयुक्त राष्ट्र महासभेने २० डिसेंबर २०१७ मध्ये जागतिक मधमाशी दिन साजरा करण्याचा ठराव संमत केला. आज मानवाने जंगल क्षेत्रावर केलेले अतिक्रमण, शेतीसाठी कीटकनाशकांचा वापर, प्रदूषण, वातावरण बदल, विविध रोग यामुळे मधमाश्यांचा अधिवास आणि विकास धोक्यात आला आहे. या पार्श्वभूमीवर या दिवसाचे महत्व समजून घेणे आवश्यक आहे.

*परिसंस्थेसाठी मधमाशी महत्वाची*
परिसंस्थेच्या अस्तित्वासाठी परागण ही मुलभूत प्रक्रीया आहे. जगातील सुमारे ९० टक्के सपुष्प वनस्पती प्राण्यांपासून होणाऱ्या परागणावर अवलंबून असतात, ज्यामध्ये जगातील ७५ टक्के शेतीपीके आणि ३५ टक्के शेतीचा समावेश आहे. परागण करणारे सजीव केवळ अन्न सुरक्षेत थेट योगदान देत नाहीत तर जैवविविधतेचेही रक्षण करीत असतात. यावरून मधमाशीद्वारे होत असलेल्या कार्याचे महत्व आपल्याला लक्षात येईल.

मधमाश्यांच्या अस्तित्वाला मानवी वर्तनामुळे धोका निर्माण झाला आहे. पर्यावरणात मानवी हस्तक्षेपामुळे त्यांच्या प्रजाती नष्ट होण्याचे प्रमाण सामान्यापेक्षा १०० ते १००० पट अधिक आहे. जागतिक स्तरावर मधमाश्या, फुलपाखरे आणि वटवाघळांसारख्या १७ टक्के प्रजाती नामशेष होण्याच्या मार्गावर आहेत. असेच सुरू राहिल्यास फळे, काजू आणि अनेक भाजीपाला पिकांची जागा तांदूळ, मका आणि बटाटे यांसारखी पिके घेतील आणि त्यामुळे एकूणच आहारात असंतुलन निर्माण होईल.

*आपण काय करू शकतो?*

जागतिक मधमाशी दिनाच्या निमित्ताने जागतिक स्तरावर मधमाश्या आणि मधमाशी पालनाच्या विविधतेविषयी चर्चा घडवून आणली जाणार आहे. मधमाशी पालनावर लाखो लोकांचा रोजगार अवलंबून आहे. यानिमित्ताने वनस्पतींच्या संख्यात्मक आणि गुणात्मक वाढीसाठी आणि अनेक वनस्पतीच्या पुनरुत्पादनासाठी मधमाश्यांच्या महत्वाच्या भूमिकेचाही विचार होणार आहे.

मधमाश्यांचे संरक्षण करण्यासाठी वेगवेगळ्या वेळी फुलणाऱ्या स्थानिक प्रजातीच्या वनस्पतीची लागवड करणे गरजेचे आहे. स्थानिक शेतकऱ्यांकडून मध खरेदी केल्यास त्यांना मधमाशी पालनासाठी प्रोत्साहन मिळू शकेल. सेंद्रीय कृषि उत्पादनांची खरेदी करावी. शेती किंवा बगिच्यांमध्ये किटनाशके, तणनाशके आणि बुरशीनाशकांचा उपयोग टाळावा.

जंगली मधमाश्यांच्या घरट्यांचे रक्षण करावे. मधमाश्यांसांठी घराच्या खिडकीत पाण्याचे भांडे ठेवावे. वन परिसंस्था टिकावी यासाठी आपले योगदान द्यावे आणि सोबत इतरांनाही असे करण्यास प्रेरित केल्यास मधमाशांचे संवर्धन शक्य आहे.

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220 thoughts on “जागतिक मधमाशी दिन: शेतीसाठी कीटकनाशकांचा वापर, प्रदूषण, वातावरण बदल, विविध रोग यामुळे मधमाश्यांचा अधिवास आणि विकास धोक्यात आला आहे.

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