आर्टिकल: लोकप्रतिनिधींना स्वतःच्या मतदारसंघांतून आणि मतदारांपासून तोंड लपवण्याची पाळी येणे हे लोकशाही व्यवस्थेत नक्कीच भूषणावह नाही
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केवळ अकरा वर्षे सार्वजनिक आणि राजकीय कारकीर्द लाभलेल्या राजीव गांधी यांनी भारतात अनेक मूलभूत बदल घडवून आणले याची नेहेमीच दखल घेतली जात नाही. देशाच्या इतिहासात आतापर्यंत सर्वाधिक तरुण पंतप्रधान आणि राजकारणात पूर्णतः नवखे, अननुभवी असणाऱ्या राजीव यांनी हे दूरगामी परिणाम करणारे बदल घडवून आणले.

यामागचे एक मुख्य कारण असे होते की ते इच्छा नसताना बळजबरीने देशाच्या राजकारणात ओढले गेले होते. इतरांसारखे ते व्यावसायिक म्हणजे राजकारणाला वाहून घेतलेले नेते नव्हते. भारताच्या पहिल्या पंतप्रधानांचे नातू आणि तत्कालीन पंतप्रधानांचे थोरले चिरंजीव असले तरी ‘एअर इंडिया’त पायलट म्हणून ते खुष होते आणि त्यांची इटालियन पत्नी सोनिया यांचा तर त्यांनी राजकारणात येण्यास ठाम विरोध होता.

राजीव यांनी आपल्या पत्नीचे ऐकले असते आणि आपल्या आईला इंदिरा गांधींना आपल्याला राजकारणात ओढू नये अशी विनंती केली असते तर काय झाले असते. ही `जर तर’ ची भाषा आहे आणि तसे झाले असते तर कदाचित राजीव आजही जिवंत राहिले असते आणि वायुदलाच्या सेवेतील निवृत्तीनंतर देशातच किंवा दुसऱ्या एखाद्या देशात आपली पत्नी आणि राहुल आणि प्रियंका यांच्यासह राहिले असते. पण तसे व्हायचे नव्हते.

प्रबळ राजकीय महत्त्वाकांक्षा असलेल्या आपल्या खासदार मुलाचे ` संजय गांधीचे – विमान अपघातात निधन झाल्यावर खचलेल्या इंदिरा गांधींना पाठबळ देण्यासाठी राजीव राजकारणात उतरले, अमेठीचे खासदार झाले.

हिंदी चित्रपटात एक दिवसासाठी मुख्यमंत्री होण्याची संधी लाभलेला अनिल कपूर त्या संधीचे सोने करतो आणि धडाधड धाडसी लांब पल्यांचे परिणाम असणारे निर्णय घेतो त्याप्रमाणे अचानक पंतप्रधान पदावर आलेल्या राजीव गांधी यांनी केले. राजकारणातील छक्केपंजे शिकण्याआधीच इंदिराजींची हत्या झाली आणि राजीव त्याच संध्याकाळी पंतप्रधान झाले.

काँग्रेस पक्षाचे मुंबईत अधिवेशन झाले तेव्हा जनता आणि सरकार यांच्यामध्ये असलेल्या दलालांचे प्रस्थ मोडून काढण्याची भाषा काँग्रेस अध्यक्ष आणि पंतप्रधान राजीव गांधी यांनी केली. सरकारच्या कुठल्याही योजनेतील शंभर पैशांपैकी फक्त पंधरा पैसे शेवटी लोकांच्या हाती पडतात हे त्यांचे त्या सुरुवातीच्या काळातील आणखी एक गाजलेले वाक्य.

आणिबाणीच्या काळात लोकांचा केंद्रातील आणि राज्यांतील काँग्रेस सरकारवरचा विश्वास पूर्ण उडाला होता. सरकारी यंत्रणेतील भ्रष्टाचार आणि गैरकारभार याकडे त्यावेळच्या विरोधात असलेल्या पक्षांनी लोकांमध्ये जागृती केली होती. मात्र इंदिराजींना पराभूत करून सत्तेवर आलेल्या जनता पक्षाच्या नेत्यांनी लोकांची पुरती निराशा केली होती आणि पुन्हा एकदा इंदिराजींना सत्तेवर आणले होते.

आता पंतप्रधान झालेल्या राजीव यांनी आपल्या वागण्याने आणि बोलण्याने देशातील लोकांच्या आशा पुन्हा एकदा पल्लवित केल्या. त्यामुळे १९८५ साली झालेल्या निवडणुकीत राजीव यांनी लोकसभेच्या विक्रमी संख्येच्या जागा मिळवल्या. दोन तृतीयांश बहुमत मिळाल्याने सहजरीत्या देशाच्या घटनेत आवश्यक ते बदल करण्याची त्यांना संधी मिळाली आणि राजीव गांधी यांनी ही संधी पुरती वापरली

देशात संगणक युग लवकरात लवकर यावे यासाठी राजीव गांधी यांनी त्वरेने पावले उचलली. त्याकाळात सर्व समाजात ऑटोमेशन म्हणजे संगणिकीकरण आणण्यास अनेक विरोधी पक्षाचा प्रखर विरोध होता, प्रचंड बेरोजगारी असलेल्या देशात संगणक आणल्याने लोकांच्या नोकरी जातील हे त्यामागचे कारण दिले जायचे.

वृत्तपत्र कामगार चळवळीतला एक नेता – गोवा युनियन ऑफ जर्नालिस्ट (गुज)चा सरचिटणीस आणि इंडियन फेडरेशन ऑफ वर्किंग जर्नालिस्टचा राष्ट्रीय समिती सदस्य – म्हणून मी स्वतः अशा मोर्चाचे गोव्यात आणि श्रीनगरमध्ये नेतृत्व केले होते याची आता गंमत वाटते.

मतदानासाठी वयाची अट एकवीस वरून अठरापर्यंत खाली आणण्यासाठी राजीव यांनी घटना दुरुस्ती केली. ग्राहकांना त्यांचे अधिकार आणि हक्क मिळावे यासाठी ग्राहक सुरक्षा कायदा १९८६ त्यांनी अमलात आणला.

याच काळात राजकारणी नेत्यांमध्ये स्वतःच्या स्वार्थासाठी आणि सत्तेसाठी या पक्षातून त्या पक्षात जाण्याचे प्रमाण वाढत चालले होते. इंदिरा गांधी यांच्या अखेरच्या काळात अशा घटना उत्तर भारतात विशेषतः हरियाणा येथे घडल्या होत्या. भजन लाल, बन्सी लाल आणि देवी लाल या आपल्या नावांत `लाल’ असणाऱ्या तीन नेत्यांच्या राजकीय प्रवासाकडे यासंदर्भात पाहता येईल. `आया राम, गया राम’ हा हेटाळणीयुक्त वाक्यप्रचार हरियाणातील घटनांमुळे तेव्हा रूढ झाला होता. काही महिन्यांपूर्वी शिवसेना खासदार संजय राऊत यांनीं गोव्यात माजी मुख्यमंत्री चर्चिल आलेमाव यांना उद्देशून ‘आलेमाव, गेलेमाव’ अशी शब्दयोजना केली.

महाराष्ट्रात सत्तरच्या दशकात शरद पवार यांनी आपल्याच काँग्रेस पक्षाचे मुख्यमंत्री असलेल्या वसंतदादा पाटील यांच्याविरुद्ध बंड केले आणि स्वतः मुख्यमंत्री झाले तेव्हा त्यांना या बंडाळीपासून अटकाव करणारा कुठलाच कायदा नव्हता.

राजकारणी लोकांच्या या दलबदलू वृत्तीवर लगाम घालावा या हेतूने राजीव गांधी सरकारने पक्षांतर बंदी कायदा १९८६ अमलात आणला.

निवडून आलेल्या व्यक्तीने पक्षांतर केल्यास त्याविरुद्ध त्वरित कारवाई करण्याची सुविधा या कायद्यात होती. त्यानुसार पक्षांतर करणाऱ्या व्यक्तीचे पद रद्द होणार होते. त्याशिवाय काही कालावधीसाठी निवडणूक लढण्यास अपात्र ठरवण्यात येणार होते.

ग्राहक संरक्षण कायदा आल्यावर ग्राहकांची फसवणूक आणि पिळवणूक रोखली जाणार असे वाटले होते, तसेच पक्षांतर बंदी कायद्यामुळे आता दलबदलू वृत्तीला लगाम घातला जाईल असे वाटले होते. दोन्ही कायद्यांच्या बाबतीत लोकांचा लवकरच भ्रमनिरास झाला.

दुदैवाची बाब म्हणजे पक्षांतर बंदी कायदा अस्तित्वात आल्यानंतर लगेच कालबाह्य झाला. याचे एक कारण म्हणजे दोन तृतियांश लोकप्रतिनिधींनी एकगठ्ठा पक्षांतर केले तर ते पक्षांतर न मानता फूट पडणे किंवा एक वेगळा गट निर्माण होणे अशी या कायद्यातंर्गत तरतूद आहे.

या तरतुदीचा फायदा घेत मग अनेक पक्षांतरे कायदेशीर बनली आणि लोकप्रतिनिधींवरची अपात्रतेची टांगती तलवार अनायासे दूर झाली.
मात्र दोन तृतियांश लोकप्रतिनिधींनी एकाच वेळी पक्षातून बाहेर पडणे अशक्य आहे हे लक्षात आल्यानंतर बंडखोर लोकप्रतिनिधी आणि त्यांना स्वतःकडे आकर्षित करणारे राजकीय पक्ष वेगळ्या क्लृप्तीचा वापर करू लागले.

गेल्या काही वर्षांपासून पक्षांतर करणारी व्यक्ती सरळसरळ पक्षांतर न करता आमदार किंवा खासदार या निवडून आलेल्या पदाचा आणि आपल्या पक्षाचा राजीनामा देते. यामुळे पक्षांतर बंदी कायद्याची कुठलीही तरतूद त्यांना लागू होत नाही. मग आपल्या हव्या त्या पक्षाच्या तिकिटावर ही राजकारणी मंडळी निवडून येतात,

महाराष्ट्रात काही वर्षांपूर्वी नारायण राणे यांनी आपल्या काही समर्थक आमदारांसह शिवसेनेत बंड केले आणि सत्ताधारी काँग्रेसमध्ये प्रवेश केला. तेव्हा राज्यात पहिल्यांदाच ` आणि बहुधा देशातसुद्धा – पहिल्यांदाच पक्षांतर बंदीतल्या या पळवाटीची मदत घेतली होती.

त्यावेळी शिवसेनेचे आमदार असलेल्या राणे समर्थकांपैकी एक जण राजीनामा देत असे, परत निवडून आल्यानंतर दुसरा आमदार राजीनामा देई आणि अशाप्रकारे आपल्या सर्व समर्थक बंडखोर आमदारांना राणे यांनी काँग्रेसच्या तिकिटांवर पुन्हा निवडून आणले होते. या काळात तांत्रिकदृष्टया हे आमदार शिवसेना आमदार होते, मात्र त्यांच्यावर पक्षांतर बंदी कायद्यानुसार कारवाई करणे शिवसेनेचे टाळले होते,
अन्यथा कारवाई केल्यावर या बंडखोर आमदारांना `स्वतंत्र’, कुणाशीही संलग्न नसलेले म्हणून मान्यता मिळून त्यांची आमदारकीसुद्धा शाबूत राहिली होती.

कायद्याच्या याच तरतुदीचा फायदा घेत काही वर्षांपूर्वी नारायण राणे यांनी भाजपमध्ये प्रवेश केल्यानंतर त्यांचे चिरंजीव आमदार नितेश राणे यांनी राजीनामा न देता आपली काँग्रेस पक्षाची अशीच आमदारकी टिकवली होती.

बहुतांश वेळेला मतदार राजा अशा `राजीनामा सत्रा’च्या खेळीला साथ देत असतो. चांगल्या उद्देशाने अमलात आणलेल्या पक्षांतर बंदी कायद्याच्या नाकावर टिच्चून सर्वांच्या संमतीने हा प्रकार घडत असतो हे विशेष.

भारतीय जनता पक्ष आपल्या ऑपरेशन लोटस मिशनसाठी राजीनाम्याचे हे हत्यार आता अगदी लीलया वापरत असला तरी काँग्रेसनेसुद्धा हे हत्यार फार पूर्वीच वापरले होते याचा अनेकांना विसर पडतो.

घटनात्मक तरतुदी काहीही असल्या तरी जनाधार गमावणे, सत्तेवर किंवा पदावर राहण्याचा नैतिक अधिकार गमावणे अशा घटनाबाह्य मुद्द्यांचा वापर करण्याची परंपरा दुदैवाने फार पूर्वीच म्हणजे पक्षांतर बंदी कायदा अस्तित्वात येण्याआधीच सुरु झाली होती.

सत्तांतर घडवून आणण्यासाठी लोकनियुक्त सरकारचा राजीनामा मागणे किंवा जनाधार गमावल्याचे कारण देऊन अशा सरकारांना घाऊक पद्धतीने बरखास्त करायचे ही पद्धत आणीबाणीनंतर सत्तेवर आलेल्या जनता पक्षाच्या सरकारने वापरली होती.

मोरारजी देसाई यांच्या नेतृत्त्वाखाली केंद्रात १९७७ साली सत्तेवर आलेल्या जनता पक्षाच्या सरकारने उत्तर भारतातील तब्बल नऊ राज्यांतील निवडून आलेली सरकारे तडकाफडकी बरखास्त केली होती. कारण काय तर काँग्रेस सरकार अस्तित्वात असलेल्या या सर्व नऊ राज्यांत काँग्रेस पक्षाला नुकत्याच पार पडलेल्या लोकसभेची एकही जागा मिळाली नव्हती. याचा अर्थ असा होता की या काँग्रेस पक्षाच्या सरकारांनी जनाधार गमावला होता, या सरकारांना सत्तेत राहण्याचा नैतिक अधिकार राहिला नव्हता. नंतरच्या निवडणुकीत या नऊही राज्यांत काँग्रेसचा पराभव होऊन जनता पक्षाची सरकारे सत्तेवर आली होती.

खरे पाहता घटनेच्या तरतुदीनुसार लोकांनी निवडून दिलेल्या या राज्य सरकारांना आपली पाच वर्षांची मुदत पूर्ण करण्याचा अधिकार होता. तरीसुद्धा या घटनात्मक बाबीकडे दुर्लक्ष करण्यात आले होते, घटनात्मक तरतुदीकडे कानाडोळा करुन केवळ नैतिक मुद्द्यावर जोर दिला गेला होता.

आज विविध राज्यांत होणाऱ्या आणि पद्धतशीरपणे घडवून आणल्या जाणाऱ्या घाऊक राजीनामा सत्राचे मूळ एक प्रकारे जनता पक्षाने १९७७ साली केलेल्या या राज्य सरकारांच्या बरखास्तीच्या घोडचुकीत आहे. मात्र त्याकाळी काँग्रेस सरकारविरुद्ध सगळीकडे नाराजी असल्यामुळे हे घटनाबाह्य कृत्य सर्वसंमत ठरले. आज तोच नियम आणि पायंडा लोकप्रतिनिधींच्या राजीनाम्यामध्ये वापरला जात आहे.

पक्षांतर करण्यासाठी लवकरच वेगवेगळ्या क्लुप्त्या वापरल्या गेल्या. लोकनियुक्त पदावरून राजीनामा हे त्यातले अलीकडच्या काळात सर्वांत प्रभावी तंत्र आणि हत्यार ठरले.

राज्यातील महाराष्ट्र विकास आघाडीच्या सरकारपुढे शिवसेना नेते आणि ज्येष्ठ मंत्री एकनाथ शिंदे यांनी कडवे आव्हान उभे केले आहे. मात्र अशा प्रकारच्या आमदारांची पळवापळवी, लोकप्रतिनिधींना ओलीस ठेवणे किंवा संरक्षणात ठेवणे, लोकप्रतिनिधींना स्वतःच्या मतदारसंघांतून आणि मतदारांपासून तोंड लपवण्याची पाळी येणे हे लोकशाही व्यवस्थेत नक्कीच भूषणावह नाही.

लोकनियुक्त पदाचा आणि आपल्या पक्षाचा राजीनामा दिल्यानंतर सदर व्यक्ती पक्षांतर बंदी कायद्याच्या कचाट्यातून वाचते. राजीनामा दिल्यानंतर दुसऱ्याच क्षणाला त्या व्यक्तीला मंत्रिपद स्वीकारून सहा महिन्यात परत निवडून येता येते. याच तरतुदीचा फायदा घेत आधी महाराष्ट्रात नारायण राणे समर्थक शिवसेना आमदारांनी, नंतर भाजपने गोव्यात आणि कर्नाटकात इतर राज्यांत पक्षांतर घडवून आणले.

त्यामुळे लोकप्रतिनिधी कायद्यात बदल करण्याची गरज आहे, एकदा निवडून आल्यावर राजीनामा दिल्यास काही काळ पुन्हा निवडणूक लढवण्यास त्यांना अपात्र ठरवल्यास कुणी असे पाऊल उचलणार नाही.

निवडून आलेल्या व्यक्तीने आपली मुदत संपण्याआधी राजीनामा दिला तर निवडणुकीत थोड्या फरकाने हरलेल्या उमेदवाराची त्या पदावर निवड करण्याची तरतूद असल्यास पक्षांतराचा कुणी विचारही करणार नाही. त्याशिवाय अनावश्यक किंवा लादलेला निवडणूक खर्च टाळता येईल.

अशा सूचना किंवा शिफारशी हास्यास्पद म्हणता येणार नाही. याचे कारण म्हणजे अनेकदा एखादा उमेदवार फार कमी म्हणजे काही शेकडा मतांच्या फरकाने निवडून आलेला असतो, त्यामुळे अशा परिस्थितीत पराभूत उमेदवारालासुद्धा जनाधार असतोच. उदाहरणार्थ गोव्याचे आताचे मुख्यमंत्री प्रमोद सावंत हे त्यांच्या मतदारसंघातल्या अटीतटीच्या निवडणुकीत केवळ पाचशे मतांच्या फरकाने निवडून आले आहेत.

अमेरिकेच्या राष्ट्राध्यक्ष पद्धतीत राष्ट्राध्यक्षांचे निधन झाल्यास किंवा कुठल्याही कारणाने हे पद रिकामे झाल्यास तत्क्षणी उपराष्ट्राध्यक्ष त्या पदावर उरलेल्या मुदतीसाठी सूत्रे हाती घेतात. अमेरिकेत राष्ट्राध्यक्षाबरोबर उपराराष्ट्राध्यक्षपदाची निवडणूक लढवणाऱ्या उमेदवारास `रनिंग मेट’ असे म्हणतात .

अमेरिकन राष्ट्राध्यक्ष रिचर्ड निक्सन यांच्याविरुद्ध वॉटरगेट प्रकरणी यशस्वीरीत्या महाभियोग चालवल्यानंतर त्यांना राजीनामा द्यावा लागला, तेव्हा उपराष्ट्राध्यक्ष असलेले जेराल्ड फोर्ड हे उर्वरीत अडीच वर्षाच्या मुदतीसाठी पूर्ण अधिकार असलेले राष्ट्राध्यक्ष बनले होते. अशाप्रकारे निवडून न येता अमेरिकन राष्ट्राध्यक्ष बनलेले फोर्ड एकमेव उदाहरण आहे. नंतरच्या राष्ट्राध्यक्षपदाच्या निवडणुकीत ते पराभूत झाले होते.

कुठलाही कायदा परिपूर्ण नसतो. कायद्याचा होणार दुरुपयोग, त्यातील पळवाटा आणि त्रुटी दूर करण्यासाठी या कायद्यांत वेळोवेळी बदल करावे लागतात. गेल्या काही वर्षांच्या घाऊक पक्षांतर घटनांनी पक्षांतर बंदी कायदा आता हास्यास्पद बनला आहे हे स्पष्ट दिसून आले आहे. या कायद्यात बदल करण्याची गरज आहे हे धडधडीत दिसत असताना घटना बदलण्याची क्षमता असलेला पक्ष सत्तेवर असला तरी असा कायदा बदल होणे शक्य दिसत नाही. कारण पक्षांतर बंदी कायदा बदलणे कुठल्याच सत्ताधारी पक्षाच्या दृष्टीने सोयीस्कर किंवा निकडीचे नसते.

अशावेळी केवळ हात चोळीत बसण्याऐवजी प्रचलित कायद्यांत योग्य त्या सुधारणा आणण्यासाठी जनमताचा रेटा उभारण्याची गरज आहे. त्यासाठी लोकशाही व्यवस्थेतील सर्वच स्तंभांनी आणि घटकांनी पावले उचलण्याची गरज आहे.

Camil Parkhe, June 25, 2022

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2,166 thoughts on “आर्टिकल: लोकप्रतिनिधींना स्वतःच्या मतदारसंघांतून आणि मतदारांपासून तोंड लपवण्याची पाळी येणे हे लोकशाही व्यवस्थेत नक्कीच भूषणावह नाही

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